The relative worst-order ratio, a relatively new measure for the quality of on-line algorithms, is extended and applied to the paging problem. We obtain results significantly different from those obtained with the competitive ratio. First, we devise a new deterministic paging algorithm, Retrospective-LRU, and show that, according to the relative worst-order ratio and in contrast with the competitive ratio, it performs better than LRU. Our experimental results, though not conclusive, are slightly positive and leave it possible that Retrospective-LRU or similar algorithms may be worth considering in practice. Furthermore, the relative worst-order ratio (and practice) indicates that LRU is better than the marking algorithm FWF, though all deterministic marking algorithms have the same competitive ratio. Look-ahead is also shown to be a significant advantage with this new measure, whereas the competitive ratio does not reflect that look-ahead can be helpful. Finally, with the relative worst-order ratio, as with the competitive ratio, no deterministic marking algorithm can be significantly better than LRU, but the randomized algorithm MARK is better than LRU.
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